Tourism in the new era and modern history.
The period before World War is a continuation of trends in tourism development in the second half of the nineteenth century during the Second World War in the industry comes complete standstill, which quickly recovered its position more in the 20s. There are, and new trends, primarily related to the prevalence of the automobile as a mass vehicle in North America and in major European countries. In Russia after the October Revolution and Civil War created the conditions for mass, but controlled by the party-state power and domestic leisure tourism social – through the holiday cards for trade union rest homes and sanatoriums for treatment. Due to the isolation of Soviet Russia there is practically no international tourism development. Social tourism is growing in developed European countries. Significant revenues from international tourism are again old tourist countries Italy, France, Switzerland, followed far behind by Austria, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Hungary, etc.
During the interwar period in many European countries (France, England, Austria, Scandinavia and others.) Legislate 8-hour workday and the right for 2-3 weeks paid annual leave. This, together with the development of rail and road transport and the development of sanatorium facilities, create conditions for expanding the social base of quantitative and qualitative leap in tourism development. Performed major road construction (especially in the U.S. and Germany). In practice, however, jump does not occur because of the great economic crisis that gripped Europe and America (1929-1933 years) due to political tensions and the emerging war on the Axis Rome-Berlin-Tokyo with England and France, and later The U.S. and Soviet Russia, which began in 1935 in the Far East and Africa and is transmitted to the European continent by the Spanish civil war and occupation of Poland in 1939 Despite detaining role of crises, wars and internal conflicts as development has under the technical progress of Transport and in the Large scale tourism and the emergence of so-called. social tourism, subsidized by the government, unions, church, savings banks and foundations.
Yet possibilities remain underused, tourism does not become a global industry. The income level of broad segments of the population even in developed countries is such that they remain outside tourism, it still has not become available for all manner of using leisure time. But events like turning an aircraft into a means of rapid transport over long distances, the construction of large passenger zeppelins and more. Signal the approaching era of mass travel.
The advent of this era is shifted from the most destructive war in human history – World War II.
Even before completion of the war, wealthy Americans began to visit Florida and the Caribbean – particularly Cuba. Most of Europe was destroyed and the first postwar years were years of economic recovery in Western Europe, supported by the U.S. Marshall Plan, and fell into the Soviet camp Eastern Europe.
In the old tourist countries in Western Europe in the early 50s comes true “tourist boom.”
Later, he includes a second group of countries from the periphery of the continent – Spain, Greece, Yugoslavia, then – Portugal, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Cyprus, Tunisia and Morocco in North Africa (countries of the “second generation”).
Throughout the postwar period, the development of tourism in North America and the Caribbean is very fast. Today the U.S. is the leading country in the development of domestic tourism and a number of key indicators of international tourism. There is a great development of tourism also in Mexico and Canada.
In the 70s began developing a large new group of travel parties (“third generation”), located in East and Southeast Asia – Japan, Thailand, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, South Korea. To this rapid development has recently joined two countries with large tourism potential – Indonesia and Australia, as well as many island states in the Pacific.
In other regions of the world – South America, Middle East, South Asia, Africa south of Sahara – tourism has developed significantly less, although there are some significant growth poles (South Africa, for example). They live most of the population of developing countries whose standard of living does not allow mass development of domestic tourism and international tourism passive. Obstacle to the development of an active international tourism is the lack of local investment potential and know-how and poor infrastructure. These destinations are disadvantaged by the big tour operators who offer them on international market prices and on such a time that does not compete with the main tourist countries. Nevertheless, these countries have great tourism potential with a wealth of valuable natural, cultural and cognitive resources.
To the 1950 transatlantic ships permanently lost the competition with airplanes borne passenger traffic between America and Europe. Promptness of flights allowed to be reduced by about one week time for a boat trip in both directions, which expands the possibilities for a longer stay of American tourists in Europe. Since 1958 started using jet engines in passenger aircraft to come to the construction of aircraft giants Boeing 747 and Concorde. In 1991 over 1 billion of air travelers, many of whom are tourists.
On the other hand, to improve ferry and hydrofoil boats, whose speed is greater. The latter are used to travel on short and medium distances in rivers, lakes, seashores. With some of the old liners and newly organized cruise ship travel, combining the transport of tourists with entertainment, visits to ports and cognitive excursions inland. Thus, water transport is a new talent in tourism. Leading in this new type of tourist shipping are England, Italy, Japan, USSR.
Along with technological progress in transport, especially in the automotive industry, crucial for tourism development is the increase in leisure time and income. Almost all countries in the world with laws normalized working hours, annual leave, benefits for treatment and other social benefits. People have more compact spare time and money, allowing them to take long trips.
In the postwar period is rapidly expanding facilities and infrastructure of tourism. Its essential elements are the hotel chains and resorts, restaurants of different types of companies and tour various tourist activities and services in place visited. Worldwide beds were discovered more than 25 million only in hotels. Directly employed in tourism are more than 20 million employees and temporary or indirectly tourism are still servicing tens of millions.
The rapid development of tourism in the 50s and 60s was hampered by the oil crisis and subsequent price and currency turmoil in the international market in the period 1973-76, however, the tourism continued to develop dynamically, albeit with lower pace.The car has become a vehicle for transporting over 80% of participants in world tourism.
Very positively affected the international tourism reducing and even eliminating (between the European Community) of border formalities relief arrangements, wider use of insurance, etc.
The disappearance of the opposition block in the world, despite the existence of local conflicts, strongly expanded choice of various tourist destinations.
Today, recreational trips, tourists are needed for hundreds of millions of people who are reluctant to abandon them even in times of economic constraints. Market conditions are very dynamic, even cyclical, but this does not change the basic direction of development – expand the social and territorial scope of tourism globally, through the transformation of leisure travel (short term and holiday) is an essential element of the budget on time. In developed countries 6-12% of the individual costs associated with recreation and tourism. Increasingly manifests selectivity of the different contingents in terms of tourism and community of their conduct, facilities and services. The main participants in the mass tourism has a preference for recreational forms of tourism, combined with sport and knowledge, while rich tourists travel mainly for entertainment, fun experiences and strengths (ie tourism is part of a behavior in which pleasures are the main goal).
Tourism development is related to overcoming and external challenges such as terrorism and violence, deterioration of ecological conditions and difficulties within the industry, mostly related to the fact that supply exceeds demand in the global tourism market. Pliance with the capacity of local natural resources and environmental pollution have become a limiting factor in some areas with very intensive use of natural recreational resources.
Tourism has become important for some major countries, economic sectors, providing high exchange earnings and employment. Tourism and masovizira planetizira. For all populations of different countries tourism has become not only possible, but he has no alternative as a form of restoration of power and knowledge of the world.
In the industry itself, sometimes referred to as the “tourist industry” dynamic structural changes occurred. The main share of tourism continue to be recreational and learning, but much more complex and dynamic configuration of the desired types of tourism and a wide variety of related activities and services. In contemporary tourism a major factor for success is the appropriate choice contingent (directed to an appropriate market segment) and the correct assessment of preferences.
Some natural recreational resources are characterized by large differences in seasons, which is aggravated under the influence of socio-economic and technological factors.This determines the strong seasonality in tourist movements (flows) and related large fluctuation in performance-based and employment. This is especially typical of the two most massive type of recreation – sea and mountain. Mitigate seasonality was always the optimal goal tourism management, but success in this regard are limited.
Although planetarizatsiyata of tourism and its transformation into a universal way for development in areas with adequate resources, its spatial distribution is more uneven and dynamic variability in the seasonal section.
With widespread avtomobilizatsiya increasing role of tourism in motion at the expense of classical stationary holiday resort.
Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of deposits and tourism caused its establishment as a dynamic socio-economic sphere of global significance and distinctive institutional structure. However tourism is becoming more competitive arena of great struggle in which each delay of scientific and technical developments and new forms of management, marketing and advertising threatens tourism companies fail.