Tourism in the Middle Ages.
In late feudalism, albeit slowly, began a development of adventures, involving mainly young people from aristocratic backgrounds. Besides the old centers of interest are reliziozni and cities like York, Santiago de Compostela Avignon, Kiev, Novgorod, Prague, some Catholic and Orthodox monasteries are centers of spiritual life. Site visits are the first university towns, metropolitan cities such as Paris, Vienna, London, Krakow, Madrid and others. Organized the first regular services to people with stagecoach and mail. With the weakening of the feudal power appear wanderers, traveling artists and craftsmen. Gradually created a network of facilities to serve travelers. Usually these are roadside establishments such as inns with overnight options for feeding, changing horses and crews. Within the visited sites also occur catering and accommodation, purchase of souvenirs, appear first voluntary and later paid guides.
Although zastinalostta of feudal societies they are made, albeit very slowly, socio-economic and spiritual changes that reflect positively on traveling. The pace of these changes is increased under the influence of discoveries in science, the great geographical discoveries that began colonization of countries outside the European continent and some other objective historical events.
Period of profound world-view changes and rethinking of the present and the past begins at the end of the Middle Ages and is defined as the Renaissance or Renaissance. This is a period of rehabilitation of the free human spirit of the rigid feudal societies. Classic country home of the European Renaissance was Italy, where this period begins in XIII-XIV century and later spread to France, Flanders, Holland, England, Bavaria, Switzerland, Austria and other parts of Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy, not coincidentally – the country in which all visible traces of the great Greco-Roman ancient culture, a country fragmented into several principalities and city-states who seek their identity and prosperity after the interruption of relations with the East as a result of Arab and Ottoman invasions. For the first time the names of artists and intellectuals of the Italian cities out of spiritual imprisonment of feudalism and turn to the values of antiquity, revived interest in the nature and natural phenomena.
In mature Renaissance spiritual center moved to Atlantic Europe – France and also England, Flanders and the Netherlands – Protestant countries that quickly made their way the new capitalist relations, which have geopolitical advantage of free shipping and relations New World, India and Africa.
In the Middle Ages (around 1500), so start. Great Journey (Grand Tour), which involved young aristocrats of Central and Northern Europe, mainly visiting Italy, but other lands of Mediterranean Europe. Sons of noble families embark on a long trip to Europe and explore the monuments of antiquity. At the beginning of the period the average length of such a trip has been four years, the age of the participants – 23 years until the end of the Grand Tour of time (around 1820) decreased the duration of 3-4 months, respectively, as age increases to 40. Very important feature of the Grand Tour is that the motivation of travel is no longer either conquest or trade. The main aim is cognitive – expansion of cultural, linguistic and religious knowledge. Participants of the Grand Tour usually travel with a whole entourage. At their regular routes (eg from Paris in Dijon in the Rhone Valley to Geneva and Italy) occur inns, stations for rest and change horses, to hire additional support staff, drivers, guides. The journey is long, sometimes dangerous and painful. Young aristocrats need and entertainment, music, appropriate dishes. All these service activities in time become a permanent occupation of many people in the places visited. Guest service is launching a number of hereditary occupations.
Another important breakthrough in medieval zastinalost is the creation of government offices for regular or long-distance communications with passenger and mail coach.
In XVII-XVIII century intensified use of some mineral baths for healing purposes and rest crowned heads of noble personages and their attendants. For the needs of some old Roman aristocracy baths are becoming in bathing resorts – Carlsbad, Vichy, Bayreuth, Baden-Baden, Evian, Spa, Bath and others.
Renaissance coincides with the scientific and geographical discoveries. Were built large sailing ships, travel became cheaper and far more regular, organized multiple expeditions and scientific cognitive orientation. If the first journey with Intelligence aggressive goal, following a clear focus on maintaining the administration, trade relations and the growing role of research and cognitive motivation.
Middle Ages and developing capitalism marked qualitative and quantitative growth of travel. They still are not tourist, are still limited to the noble class and some members of the nascent third class and the intelligentsia. But now arose future resorts have created some of the prerequisites for the establishment of businesses serving the traveling, which are primarily cognitive-entertainment.