Objective historical preconditions for the emergence and development of tourism.
Modern tourism is a fast growing industry. He ranks third in foreign trade operations in the world trade after oil and automobiles. Given the pace of its development, many experts believe that at the beginning of XXI century tourism will challenge the information industry first place in foreign trade revenues.
Can no longer argue that tourism is a young, barely Newbie industry. As a sector of the economy of Western countries, it has centuries of history. The roots of modern tourism, however, are far behind in the past. Indeed, ancient man was overcome quite a few distances because demand for safe shelter, food and water. But traveling with this objective, it is discovering new places and events, is expanding their knowledge. This cognitive element travels from the distant past was originally a minor, but very slowly, over centuries, became a prime target for some trips. Some of the trips are not only informative but also religious, recreational, therapeutic, recreational, even sporty.
Gradually made differentiation of these movements, which can hardly be called a tourist (therefore they define the term trips), the dominant movements in the past of people to migration, trade, warfare, etc. Trips themselves also gradually divide and specialize in terms of their motivation.
On the question what are the root causes of the emergence and development of travel and later tourism, there are two main views.
The first can be defined as a biological argument that they are an expression of migratory (nomadic) instinct embedded in humans. The second misconception is that tourism is actually a product of socio-economic relationships and in particular the division of labor and travel for performing exchange of the very nature of the work underpinning the various forms of recreation, including recreation and by the move. In other words, tourism is a result of the labor process and by-product of the division of labor and exchange. In connection with the exchange of goods takes place movement of people around who get to know new places and became a habit of travel.
More complex is the second proven concept, although the idea of tourism as a contemporary nomadism also have some grounds.
Indeed, traveling the distant past are different from modern tourism in two main features:
They are not as massive as the then life is not causing massive demand for recreational and tourist activities, which characterize modern societies. In other words, no mass tourism demand.
General social and logistical level, including the degree of division of labor makes it impossible to create a separate branch of facilities and personnel providing specialized recreational and tourist services. This branch is created after the Industrial Revolution in the nineteenth century in the advanced European countries. Then create the necessary organizational, material and technical facilities and staff for making dynamic tourism industry.
Particularly important for the development of travel and tourism, technical progress has the means of transport.
Later, increase the volume of the boat and the number of rowers. Great revolutionary step is the use of wind power in shipping. The discovery and use of these elementary terms of today’s innovations were required millennia. The pace of scientific progress, and all the socio-economic development, greatly accelerating under capitalism. Crucial to tourism are the discovery of steam engine installation of the ship, especially the invention of the locomotive and a network of railways, allowing moving the people and goods in a short time and large razstvoyaniya. Later technical innovation with a decisive role in tourism is the invention of the internal combustion engine and the advent of the automobile and airplane.
Tourism development is inseparable from the development and improvement of social relations and material-technical base.
Modern tourism is a modern industry, widely used in modern technical means and methods of management and marketing. However, it inherits many of the adventures of their structural features.
It is therefore logical and appropriate in the course of development to make a short historical overview in order to trace the evolution of travel and their gradual transformation into a tourist movements, and later in purposeful travel.
2.2. Retrospective of milestones in the historical development of tourism.
2.2.1. Tourism in the era of ancient history.
After the collapse of the communal system generic-widening social division of labor, and the emergence of agriculture, livestock, crafts and trade. Commodity relations generate, initially unnoticed, and later pronounced social and economic inequality.Appear distinct groups that can afford travel – commercial, religious and expansionist purposes. These trips have a cognitive character. For old age recreational trips are not typical. People lived in close contact with nature. The exceptions are visits to places of natural mineral springs. For some of the oldest civilizations is a typical construction of bathrooms – as the Roman Baths with mineral resources that have hygienic, medical and even religious role.
Given the primitive transportation by land and water is clear that travel outside the residence in the ancient times have taken place in a limited geographical perimeter.Very often these were visits to neighboring areas and villages where they are organized gatherings, holidays and more. These were places of natural and monetary and exchange.
The biggest development as izvestvo, reaching greatest slave civilizations of Egypt, Ancient Greece and Rome.
Egyptians widely used Nile and its branches numerous commercial, military operations and maintenance of the administration, tax collection, for visits to holy places, etc. For several centuries the Roman Empire together throughout the Mediterranean world.Created a huge network of roads with hard pavement, bridges, roadside stations and fortresses, large military and commercial fleet, regular postal links between parts of the empire. Although military and administrative functions of this infrastructure has been determined, it is to facilitate the transport of goods and people. For example, Roman roads in the country are on the road network until the end of Ottoman rule. For the Roman aristocracy were following typical recreational trips cognitive in nature: summer holiday villas near Rome and other metropolitan areas in the empire (often for treatment in the baths), participation in sports competitions and performances (usually in Rome and cities), visits of summer residences in Sicily, cognitive and educational trips in Greece and Egypt. Patricians and merchants traveled with their families and a large retinue of family and slaves.
Importance of showing the people of ancient expeditions are organized by the Phoenicians, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans. They had a military and commercial purposes, although they were often query leads to the fore other reasons – religious, dynastic, etc.
After the collapse of the Roman Empire came the period of early feudalism characterized by containment of the relationship and break the links between different parts of the Old World. The farm is naturally closed, movement of people and ideas progressively decrease, Europe is divided into many warring states. Almost nothing is done to maintain the Roman roads. There is a huge influence of the church, with its dogmas which repels cognitive interest.
Overall, the medieval period is not favorable for the development of traveling. Some developments have only pilgrims visiting the Vatican, Jerusalem, Constantinople and other religious centers. They were organized for wealthy aristocrats traveling with guards and servants. The main reasons for these trips were religious worship, belief in the healing power of holy places and relics, the maintenance of social status and prestige.And during this period to organize individual trips, but their implementation was accompanied by great dangers, hardships and privations. As in the last centuries of the Roman Empire and throughout feudalism widespread banditry, and piracy korsarstvoto.Greater the importance of the Crusades to maintain the relationship between Europe and the East. In order to ensure greater security group and were traveling with security.Travel long distances, such as the Venetian Marco Polo, are rare and often ended tragically.
Salient features of the general travels in the era of ancient history are the following:
Strong class stratification – available only for slavery and feudal aristocracy.
Strongly dominated by cognitive-religious and entertainment over natural-recreational reasons for taking trips.
Travels were too risky and accompanied with a large transport, technical and other difficulties.
They were possible thanks to the traditional hospitality, typical of primitive societies in times of peace.
Travels could not have generated the emergence of the tourism industry with its basic elements – base and specialized personnel. That’s why they did not have a significant contribution to the economy of the places visited. In other words, at this early stage travels not affect the division of labor by forming a separate branch of the holding.